리눅스 쉘(shell)에서 디렉토리 구조를 확인하고 싶다면 ls 명령어를 이용해 확인할 수 있습니다. 하지만 디렉토리가 나열되어 보이기 때문에 계층 구조를 확실하게 구분짓지 못해 사용자 입장에서는 가독성이 떨어지게 되는데요.

이렇게 보기 힘든 디렉토리 구조를 좀더 편하게 확인할 수 있는 tree 패키지를 소개합니다.

# apt-get install tree # 우분투
# yum install tree # CentOS
# tree

관리자 권한을 가진 상태에서 tree 패키지를 설치한 후 다음 tree 명령어를 입력하면 현재 위치한 하위 디렉토리 및 파일을 구조적인 형태로 보여줍니다.

# tree -d -L 1

만일 디렉토리만 확인하고 싶다면 -d 옵션을 이용해 필터링한 다음 출력할 수 있습니다. -L 옵션 같은 경우 하위 디렉토리 레벨을 지정해 출력하게 됩니다.

이밖에도 아래와 같은 옵션이 있으니 응용해서 사용하면 좀더 직관적으로 디렉토리 구조를 확인할 수 있습니다.

usage: tree [-acdfghilnpqrstuvxACDFJQNSUX] [-H baseHREF] [-T title ]
[-L level [-R]] [-P pattern] [-I pattern] [-o filename] [--version]
[--help] [--inodes] [--device] [--noreport] [--nolinks] [--dirsfirst]
[--charset charset] [--filelimit[=]#] [--si] [--timefmt[=]<f>]
[--sort[=]<name>] [--matchdirs] [--ignore-case] [--] [<directory list>]
  ------- Listing options -------
  -a            All files are listed.
  -d            List directories only.
  -l            Follow symbolic links like directories.
  -f            Print the full path prefix for each file.
  -x            Stay on current filesystem only.
  -L level      Descend only level directories deep.
  -R            Rerun tree when max dir level reached.
  -P pattern    List only those files that match the pattern given.
  -I pattern    Do not list files that match the given pattern.
  --ignore-case Ignore case when pattern matching.
  --matchdirs   Include directory names in -P pattern matching.
  --noreport    Turn off file/directory count at end of tree listing.
  --charset X   Use charset X for terminal/HTML and indentation line output.
  --filelimit # Do not descend dirs with more than # files in them.
  --timefmt <f> Print and format time according to the format <f>.
  -o filename   Output to file instead of stdout.
  -------- File options ---------
  -q            Print non-printable characters as '?'.
  -N            Print non-printable characters as is.
  -Q            Quote filenames with double quotes.
  -p            Print the protections for each file.
  -u            Displays file owner or UID number.
  -g            Displays file group owner or GID number.
  -s            Print the size in bytes of each file.
  -h            Print the size in a more human readable way.
  --si          Like -h, but use in SI units (powers of 1000).
  -D            Print the date of last modification or (-c) status change.
  -F            Appends '/', '=', '*', '@', '|' or '>' as per ls -F.
  --inodes      Print inode number of each file.
  --device      Print device ID number to which each file belongs.
  ------- Sorting options -------
  -v            Sort files alphanumerically by version.
  -t            Sort files by last modification time.
  -c            Sort files by last status change time.
  -U            Leave files unsorted.
  -r            Reverse the order of the sort.
  --dirsfirst   List directories before files (-U disables).
  --sort X      Select sort: name,version,size,mtime,ctime.
  ------- Graphics options ------
  -i            Don't print indentation lines.
  -A            Print ANSI lines graphic indentation lines.
  -S            Print with CP437 (console) graphics indentation lines.
  -n            Turn colorization off always (-C overrides).
  -C            Turn colorization on always.
  ------- XML/HTML/JSON options -------
  -X            Prints out an XML representation of the tree.
  -J            Prints out an JSON representation of the tree.
  -H baseHREF   Prints out HTML format with baseHREF as top directory.
  -T string     Replace the default HTML title and H1 header with string.
  --nolinks     Turn off hyperlinks in HTML output.
  ---- Miscellaneous options ----
  --version     Print version and exit.
  --help        Print usage and this help message and exit.
  --            Options processing terminator.

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